【DSE CHEM】Chemical Reaction Equation List 化學反應列表

The Chemist🧪
The Chemist🧪 2021-11-16 1,795
AfterSchool 今次幫讀 DSE CHEM 嘅同學仔整合咗 Chemical Reaction Equation List!「DSE 化學反應列表」,入面包括 acid, base, metal, redox reaction 等
AfterSchool 今次搵咗 The Chemist 幫讀 DSE CHEM 嘅同學仔整合咗 Chemical Reaction Equation List!「DSE 化學反應列表」,入面包括 acid, base, metal, redox reaction 等你需要嘅 DSE chemical equations!
 

Metals 金屬

Metal Extraction 金屬提煉

Direct Heating
  • Metal Ores → Metal + Oxygen

Carbon Reduction
  • Metal Ores + Carbon → Metal + Carbon Dioxide
 

Reaction of Metals 金屬的反應

Reaction with Oxygen
  • Metals + Oxygen → Metal Oxide

Reaction with Water
  • Metals + Water → Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen Gas

Reaction with Steam
  • Metals + Steam → Metal Oxide + Hydrogen Gas

Reaction with Acid
  • Metals + Acid → Salt + Hydrogen Gas
  

Corrosion & Rusting 生銹

  • 4Fe(s) + 3O₂(g) + 2nH₂O(l) → 2Fe₂O₃ . nH₂O(s)
 

Acids & Bases 酸和鹼

Reactions with Acid 酸的反應

Acid + Metal
  • Dilute Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen Gas

Acid + Base (Neutralization)
  • Acid + Base → Salt + Water

Acid + Carbonate
  • Acid + Carbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Acid + Hydrogencarbonate
  • Acid + Hydrogencarbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Acid + Sulphite
  • Acid + Sulphite → Salt + Water + Sulphur Dioxide

Acid + Hydrogensulphite
  • Acid + Hydrogensulphite → Salt + Water + Sulphur Dioxide
 

Reactions with Alkalis 鹼的反應

Alkali + Ammonium Salt (under heat)
  • Alkali + Ammonium Salt → Salt + Water + Ammonia Gas

Alkali + Acid (Neutralization)
  • Alkali + Acid → Salt + Water

Alkali + Metal Cation
  • Alkali + Metal Cation → Metal Hydroxide or Metal Oxide

Alkali + Non-Metal Oxides
  • Alkali + Non-Metal Oxides → Carbonate or Sulphite Salt + Water
 

Fossil Fuels & Carbon Compounds 化石燃料和碳化合物

Reaction of Alkanes 烷烴的反應

Complete Combustion
  • Fuel + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water

Substitution with Halogens
  • Condition: under UV light
  • Alkane + Chlorine or Bromine → Haloalkane

Cracking
  • Condition: in the absence of oxygen
  • Large Alkane → Small Alkane + Small Alkene
 

Reaction of Alkenes 烯烴的反應

Addition Reaction - Reaction with Halogens
  • Alkene + Chlorine or Bromine → Haloalkane

Addition Reaction - Reaction with Cold Alkaline Dilute KMnO₄(aq)
  • Alkene → Alcohol (diol)

Addition Polymerization
  • n Alkene → Addition Polymer
 

Redox Reactions 氧化還原

Common Oxidizing Agents in DSE 常見的氧化劑

Dilute Nitric Acid with Metals
  • Dilute Nitric Acid + Metals → Metal Nitrate + Nitrogen Monoxide + Water
  • 3Ag(s) + NO₃-(aq) + 4H⁺(aq) → 3Ag⁺(aq) + NO(g) + 2H₂O(l)

Concentrated Nitric Acid with Metals
  • Concentrated Nitric Acid + Metals → Metal Nitrate + Nitrogen Dioxide + Water
  • Ag(s) + NO₃-(aq) + 2H⁺(aq) →Ag⁺(aq) + NO₂(g) + H₂O(l)

Concentrated Nitric Acid with Non-Metals
  • Carbon + Concentrated Nitric Acid → Carbon Dioxide + Nitrogen Dioxide + Water
  • C(s) + 4HNO₃ (aq) → CO₂(g) + 4NO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)
  • Sulphur + Concentrated Nitric Acid → Sulphur Dioxide + Nitrogen Dioxide + Water
  • S(s) + 4HNO₃ (aq) → SO₂(g) + 4NO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)

Concentrated Sulphuric Acid with Metals
  • Concentrated Sulphuric Acid + Metals → Metal Sulphate + Sulphur Dioxide + Water
  • H₂SO₄(l) + Cu(s) + 2H⁺(aq) → Cu²⁺ (aq) + SO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)

Concentrated Sulphuric Acid with Non-Metals
  • Concentrated Sulphuric Acid + Carbon → Carbon Dioxide + Sulphur Dioxide + Water
  • 2H₂SO₄(l) + C(s) → CO₂(g) + 2SO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)
  • Concentrated Sulphuric Acid + Sulphur → Sulphur Dioxide + Water
  • 2H₂SO₄(l) + S(s) → 3SO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)
 

Chemistry of Carbon Compounds 碳化合物的化學

Reaction of Alkanes

Substitution Reaction
  • Alkane + Chlorine or Bromine → Haloalkane
 

Reaction of Alkene, C=C

Hydrogenation
  • Reaction Condition: Pt or Ni or Pd with Heat
  • Alkene + Hydrogen → Alkane

Addition with Halogen in Organic Solvent
  • Alkene + Chlorine or Bromine → Haloalkane

Addition with Hydrogen Halide, HX
  • Alkene + Hydrogen Halide → Haloalkane

Oxidation
  • Reaction Condition: cold alkaline potassium permanganate
  • Alkene → Alkanol (diol)
  

Reaction of Haloalkanes, R-X

Substitution
  • Haloalkane + OH-(aq) → Alcohol
 

Reaction of Alcohols, R-OH

Substitution with HX or PX₃
  • Alcohol + HX or PX₃ → Haloalkane

Dehydration
  • Reaction Condition: concentrated H₂SO₄ or Al₂O₃, heat
  • Alcohol → Alkene

Oxidation with Acidified K₂Cr₂O₇ (Distillation)
  • Primary Alcohol → Aldehyde

Oxidation with Acidified K₂Cr₂O₇ or KMnO₄ (Reflux)
  • Primary Alcohol → Carboxylic Acid
  • Secondary Alcohol → Ketone
 

Reaction of Ketones & Aldehydes

Oxidation of Aldehydes
  • Reaction Condition: Acidified K₂Cr₂O₇ or KMnO₄, Heat under Reflux
  • Aldehyde → Carboxylic Acid

Reduction of Aldehyde or Ketone
  • Reaction Condition: 1) LiAlH₄ in dry ether 2) H⁺(aq) or NaBH₄(aq)
  • Aldehyde or Ketone → Alcohol
 

Reaction of Carboxylic Acid, R-COOH

Esterification
  • Reaction Condition: concentrated sulphuric acid, heat
  • Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol ⇌ Ester + Water

Reduction
  • Reaction Condition: 1) LiAlH₄ in dry ether 2) H⁺(aq)
  • Carboxylic Acid → Primary Alcohol

Amide Formation
  • Reaction Condition: Ammonia, Heat
  • Carboxylic Acid + Ammonia → Amide
 

Reaction of Esters, R-COO-R'

Acid Hydrolysis
  • Reaction Condition: H⁺(aq), Heat
  • Ester ⇌ Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
  • R-COO-R' ⇌ R-COOH + R'-OH

Alkaline Hydrolysis
  • Reaction Condition: OH-(aq), Heat
  • Ester → Carboxylate ion + Alcohol
  • R-COO-R' → R-COO- + R'-OH
 

Reaction of Amides, R-CONH₂

Acid Hydrolysis
  • Reaction Condition: H⁺(aq), Heat
  • Amide → Carboxylic Acid + Ammonium Salt
  • R-CONH₂ → R-COOH + NH₄⁺

Alkaline Hydrolysis
  • Reaction Condition: OH-(aq), Heat
  • Amide → Carboxylate Ion + Ammonia
  • R-CONH₂ → R-COO- + NH₃
  
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The Chemist🧪

The Chemist🧪

🚀定期分享 DSE CHEM 嘅學習心得、應試技巧🧪港大化學系畢業.專科專教🎖港大理碩士學歷.鑽研最強教學法🏅曾與港大教授進行兩年教育研究🏆多年DSE教學經驗.曾教授近百學生