今次同大家分享下一個大家十分常用嘅 Grammar item - Past Tense！
經常有同學仔會問我：「點樣先可以提高 L - Language 分？無論係 DSE Paper 2 定係 Paper 3 Part B 入面，Language 分好似永遠得 3、4 分咁......」要提高 Language 分，好嘅 vocabulary 同 sentence structure 固之然重要，但如果連最 fundamental 嘅 grammar 都做唔好，再靚嘅 sentences 亦只係徒勞無功。
快啲碌落去 check下自己對 English Past Tense 嘅了解啱唔啱啦！
但事實上，即使係講緊過去發生咗嘅事，其實可以細分成唔同嘅時段喎！唔明？不如先望望下面嘅時間線圖，再等我同你講解下唔同嘅 Past Tense 啦！
Simple Past Tense 簡單過去式應該係大家接觸得最多嘅 Tense。我哋通常會喺 3 種場景用 Simple Past tense：
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I met him last Sunday .
I did not see him this afternoon.
Example 1: 指明事情係發生於 "last Sunday"
Example 2: 用 "this afternoon" 表明咗而家嘅時間已經過咗中午時分。
Simple Past Tense 亦可以用嚟描述「過去嘅習慣」:
I played basketball every day when I was in high school.
I went swimming weekly last year before covid.
I woke up and brushed my teeth.
When I phoned her, she arrived.
大家要記得喺呢一類句式入面，兩個 actions 都會用 Simple Past Tense，而先提到嘅 actions 會被認為係先發生嘅。
Example 1 入面嘅 "woke up and brushed my teeth"，由於 woke up 寫喺 brushed my teeth 前面，所以 "woke up" 呢個 action 係比 "brushed my teeth" 先發生。
Form: was/ were + v-ing
可以運用到 Past Continuous Tense 嘅場景主要分 5 種，大致上都係形容「喺過去發生咗一段時間嘅行為」。
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Were you having a lesson at 11 a.m. yesterday?
I was going back home at 10 last night.
特顯「行為嘅持續性」正正就係 Past Continuous Tense 同 Simple Past Tense 唔同嘅地方。
Example 2 亦可以寫做：
I went back home at 10 last night.
但同之前唔同嘅地方就係，Past Continuous Tense 會突顯出昨晚十時嗰陣「返緊屋企」，而用 Simple Past Tense 改寫咗嘅句子只係表達出「十點返屋企」，並唔知係開始返屋企、返緊屋企、定係已經返到屋企。
My dad came back while mum was cooking yesterday.
Mum was cleaning the house when I was studying yesterday.
通常係呢種場景入面，「較長的行為」會用 Past Continuous Tense (例句一嘅 was cooking 就係持續性較長的行為)，而「較短的行為」就會用到 Past Tense (例句一嘅 came)。
我哋會用 "while" 又或者 "when" 去連接兩個行為。不過，要記得 "while" 之後嘅 action 必需要係「持續較長的行為」呀！
注：當我哋想表達兩個行為同等重要嘅時候，我哋就會將兩個行為都用 Past Continuous Cense。
所以假如我哋想表達「行為一」比「行為二」重要嘅話，我哋可以用 Simple Past Tense 形容「行為一」，而用 Past Continuous 形容「行為二」。
Mum cleaned the house when I was studying yesterday
以上嘅例子入面，"cleaned the house" 就會係比較重要的事情，而 "studying" 就係一個 background action。
The birth rate was rising in the 1980s but it is now falling.
出生率在 80 年代上升，不過現在正在下降。
The kids were growing day by day and they are all grown-ups now.
Example 1 入面嘅 “The birth rate was rising in 1980s” 正正就係表達緊係 1980 - 1990 年間出生率係一直上升。
My kids were always playing computer games. That’s why I set a time limit for them to play.
The banker was continually calling all day so I have blocked his number.
Example 1 入面，家長先發現到小朋友經常上網玩遊戲，由於呢個係一個唔想要嘅行為 (unwanted)，所以會有 set a time limit 嘅行為。
They were living with me during their trip in Hong Kong.
My neighbour was making so much noise last week since he needed to practise the drum for the competition today.
Form: had + past participle
有三個常用 Past Perfect Tense 嘅三種場景：
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I had already finished all my homework by 7 p.m. last night.
我昨晚 7 時便已經完成了我所有功課。
I hadn’t tried alcohol by the time I was 18.
我在 18 歲之前從未嘗試過飲酒。
Example 2 表達咗由我出生到 18 歲都從未嘗試過飲酒，而我而家亦過咗 18 歲。
(同 Past Continuous 唔同，呢兩件事情並非同時係過去某一個時間點一齊發生，需係有先後次序)
I had planned to go cycling yesterday but I did not do so as it was raining.
The thief had just left when the police arrived.
- Past Perfect Tense 係指先發生嘅行為 (1st action)
(就好似 Example 1 入面，「計劃」係先發生嘅行為)
- Simple Past Tense 係指之後同樣喺過去發生嘅行為 (2nd action)
注：可能有同學仔喺呢一刻會好奇，以上呢個用法同 Simple Past Tense 嘅「用法3」 (Past actions / states happening one after another) 有咩唔同？
Simple Past： 通常係指第一個行為完咗之第二個行為即刻發生
I hadn’t had a chance to swim for a year until this month.
He had not been willing to run with me until last week.
呢個應用場景其實同 Past Perfect Continuous 好相似，不過因為有啲動詞係沒辦法喺一個 Perfect Continuous 嘅層面使用（例如state verbs, linking verbs, speech act verbs 等），喺呢啲時候，用 Past Perfect Tense 就係一個比較好嘅選擇。
Form: had + been + v-ing
終於嚟到最後一個 Past Tense 啦！
啱啱學完 Past Continuous Tense 同 Past Perfect Tense 嘅你，又知唔知 Past Perfect Continuous Tense 點用呢？
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Dad had been waiting in the rain so his shirt was wet when I met him.
喺呢句句子入面，「爸爸在雨中等我」喺我哋相遇之前一直進行中，所以會用到 Past Perfect Continuoius - “Dad had been waiting in the rain”，而之後見面就會用 Simple Past Tense - “when I met him” 去表達。
Past Perfect Tense VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Example 2A（Past Perfect ContinuousTense）
Dad had been waiting for a while before I finally arrived.
Example 2B（Past Perfect Tense）
Dad had waited for a while but I finally arrived.
同 Example 2A 唔同，Example 2B 表達嘅係一種已完成嘅狀態。(爸爸只需等一會兒，就沒有再等，與此同時 "我 "亦來了。)
相反，Example 2A 所用嘅 “Dad had been waiting for a while” 就強調咗「時間性」同「持續性」。
I had been going jogging every day for a month before the lockdown.
I had been visiting Disneyland once every year since I was young until last year.
Simple Past VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
同 Simple Past Tense 所用作形容過往恆常習慣不同，Past Perfect Continuous Tense 更重視「行為嘅持續性 (Continuity)」，而 Simple Past Tense 即係強調其「恆常性 (Regularity)」。
Past Continuous VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
有同學會將呢個用法同 Past Continuous 入面嘅 “regular unplanned actions in the past” 混淆。
要切記 Past Continuous Tense 入面所指嘅 regular actions in the past 係喺預料之外發生 (unplanned)，而且通常呢種行為係唔受歡迎嘅 (unwanted)！
相反 Past Perfect Continuous 入面嘅行為係計劃好的。
He had been revising before Dad came back yesterday.
He had been revising for 6 hours before Dad came back yesterday.
Past Perfect Tense VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense 嘅重點在於該行為已完成，就好似
He had revised for 6 hours before Dad came back yesterday.
以上嘅句子入面用咗 “had revised” 即係指係爸爸回來之前，溫習呢項行為已經完成。
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- She ______________________ (watch) this performance two years ago and still cannot forget it even today.
- I ______________________ (not go) to the party last night because I ______________________ (be) sick.
- By the time the delivery came, the problem __________________________ (already solve) itself.
- She still ____________________________ (not come) to her senses when the winner ____________________________ (announce).
- We ______________________ (dance) along to Tchaikovsky’s music when we suddenly ______________________ (hear) a terrible noise.
- “What ____________________ you ____________________ (do) at 10 p.m. last Saturday?” The police officer asks the suspect.
- When the young heiress took over the business at twenty-four, her cousin _________________________________________ (already run) it for ten years.
- Michael ______________________________ (stay) with his divorced mom since he ________________ (be) seven. Later, when he ________________________ (turn) eleven, he ____________________________ (move) to his dad’s.
- She watched this performance two years ago and still cannot forget it even today.
- I did not go to the party last night because I was sick.
- By the time the delivery came, the problem had already solved itself.
- She still had not come to her senses when the winner was announced.
- We were dancing along to Tchaikovsky’s music when we suddenly heard a terrible noise.
- “What were you doing at 10 p.m. last Saturday?” The police officer asks the suspect.
- When the young heiress took over the business at twenty-four, her cousin had already been running it for ten years.
- Michael had been staying with his divorced mom since he was seven. Later, when he turned eleven, he moved to his dad’s.
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