【英文English Grammar】Past Tense Definition + Example Sentences

Mr. J English
Mr. J English 2021-4-8 2,113
英文 Grammar 必睇! English Past Tense 用法 + definition (simple past, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous)。仲有 example sentences 添!
今次同大家分享下一個大家十分常用嘅 Grammar item - Past Tense
經常有同學仔會問我:「點樣先可以提高 L - Language 分?無論係 DSE Paper 2 定係 Paper 3 Part B 入面,Language 分好似永遠得 3、4 分咁......」要提高 Language 分,好嘅 vocabulary 同 sentence structure 固之然重要,但如果連最 fundamental 嘅 grammar 都做唔好,再靚嘅 sentences 亦只係徒勞無功。
快啲碌落去 check下自己對 English Past Tense 嘅了解啱唔啱啦!
 

Past Tense Timeline 英文過去式時間線

Past Tense,固名思義,即係「過去式」啦!
但事實上,即使係講緊過去發生咗嘅事,其實可以細分成唔同嘅時段喎!唔明?不如先望望下面嘅時間線圖,再等我同你講解下唔同嘅 Past Tense 啦!
  

Simple Past Tense 簡單過去式 (with example sentences)

Simple Past Tense 簡單過去式應該係大家接觸得最多嘅 Tense。我哋通常會喺 3 種場景用 Simple Past tense:
credit: unsplash @loic
credit: unsplash @loic

1. Past actions with a definite past time (specified/ implied)

「喺一個特定及已知嘅時間發生咗嘅行為」
Example 1
I met him last Sunday .
我上個禮拜天與他見面
Example 2
I did not see him this afternoon.
我在中午的時候並沒有看見他
解釋:
Example 1: 指明事情係發生於 "last Sunday"
Example 2: 用 "this afternoon" 表明咗而家嘅時間已經過咗中午時分。
 

2. Past habits

Simple Past Tense 亦可以用嚟描述「過去嘅習慣」
Example 1
I played basketball every day when I was in high school. 
當我還是高中生的時候,我每天都會去打籃球。

Example 2
I went swimming weekly last year before covid. 
上年,還沒有新冠肺炎的時候,我每星期都會去游泳。
 

3. Past actions / states happening one after another (Usually immediately)

最後一種用法就係用嚟形容「兩個已過去嘅行為先後發生」 (通常喺接住落)。
Example 1
I woke up and brushed my teeth. 
我起床後便去刷牙。

Example 2
When I phoned her, she arrived. 
當我致電她後,她便到達了。

解釋:
大家要記得喺呢一類句式入面,兩個 actions 都會用 Simple Past Tense,而先提到嘅 actions 會被認為係先發生嘅
Example 1 入面嘅 "woke up and brushed my teeth",由於 woke up 寫喺 brushed my teeth 前面,所以 "woke up" 呢個 action 係比 "brushed my teeth" 先發生。
 

Past Continuous Tense 過去進行式 (with example sentences)

Form: was/ were + v-ing
可以運用到 Past Continuous Tense 嘅場景主要分 5 種,大致上都係形容「喺過去發生咗一段時間嘅行為」
credit: unsplash @romanbozhko
credit: unsplash @romanbozhko

1. Actions happening at a particular time in the past

「過去一個指定時間入面發生緊嘅事情」
Example 1
Were you having a lesson at 11 a.m. yesterday? 
你昨天早上11時是否正在上課?
Example 2
I was going back home at 10 last night. 
我昨晚十時正在回家。

解釋:
特顯「行為嘅持續性」正正就係 Past Continuous Tense 同 Simple Past Tense 唔同嘅地方。
Example 2 亦可以寫做:
I went back home at 10 last night. 
我昨晚十時回家。
但同之前唔同嘅地方就係,Past Continuous Tense 會突顯出昨晚十時嗰陣「返緊屋企」,而用 Simple Past Tense 改寫咗嘅句子只係表達出「十點返屋企」,並唔知係開始返屋企、返緊屋企、定係已經返到屋企。
 

2. To describe two past actions that happened simultaneously

用嚟介紹「兩件同時喺過去發生嘅事情」
Example 1
My dad came back while mum was cooking yesterday.
爸爸回到家的時候,媽媽正在煮飯。

Example 2
Mum was cleaning the house when I was studying yesterday.
我昨天溫習的時候,媽媽正在打掃家裡。
解釋: 
通常係呢種場景入面,「較長的行為」會用 Past Continuous Tense (例句一嘅 was cooking 就係持續性較長的行為),而「較短的行為」就會用到 Past Tense (例句一嘅 came)。
我哋會用 "while" 又或者 "when" 去連接兩個行為。不過,要記得 "while" 之後嘅 action 必需要係「持續較長的行為」呀!
注:當我哋想表達兩個行為同等重要嘅時候,我哋就會將兩個行為都用 Past Continuous Cense
所以假如我哋想表達「行為一」比「行為二」重要嘅話,我哋可以用 Simple Past Tense 形容「行為一」,而用 Past Continuous 形容「行為二」。
Example 
Mum cleaned the house when I was studying yesterday 
趁我昨天溫習的時候,媽媽打掃了家裡。
以上嘅例子入面,"cleaned the house" 就會係比較重要的事情,而 "studying" 就係一個 background action。
 

3. Gradual changes / trends in the past

「形容數據改變同趨勢」
Example 1
The birth rate was rising in the 1980s but it is now falling.
出生率在 80 年代上升,不過現在正在下降。
Example 2
The kids were growing day by day and they are all grown-ups now.
小孩們一天一天長大,他們現在都是大人了。
解釋:
Example 1 入面嘅 “The birth rate was rising in 1980s” 正正就係表達緊係 1980 - 1990 年間出生率係一直上升。
 

4. Regular unplanned actions in the past (often annoying/ unwanted)

形容一啲「意料之外」「恆常發生嘅事情」(呢類事情通常都係不受歡迎嘅)
Example 1
My kids were always playing computer games. That’s why I set a time limit for them to play.
我的小孩之前經常玩網上遊戲。因此,我為他們設立了遊戲時間限制。
Example 2
The banker was continually calling all day so I have blocked his number. 
那位銀行家之前不斷持續地給我致電,所以我封鎖了他的電話號碼。
解釋:
Example 1 入面,家長先發現到小朋友經常上網玩遊戲,由於呢個係一個唔想要嘅行為 (unwanted),所以會有 set a time limit 嘅行為。
  

5. Temporary situations in the past

第五個使用場景同第一個使用場景好相似,不過呢度比較注重一個「特定嘅 event」,例如旅行係一個比較特別嘅活動。
Example 1
They were living with me during their trip in Hong Kong.
他們之前去香港旅行時與我居住在一起。
Example 2
My neighbour was making so much noise last week since he needed to practise the drum for the competition today.
我的鄰居因為要為今天的比賽去練鼓,所以自上個星期開始,他就不斷製造巨大的噪音。
 

Past Perfect Tense 過去完成式 (with example sentences)

Form: had + past participle
有三個常用 Past Perfect Tense 嘅三種場景:
credit: unsplash @ramblere
credit: unsplash @ramblere

1. To link a completed past action to a later time in the past

「表達一件事情從過去的某個時間點發生,並且持續到另外一個時間點」
Example 1
I had already finished all my homework by 7 p.m. last night.
我昨晚 7 時便已經完成了我所有功課。
Example 2
I hadn’t tried alcohol by the time I was 18. 
我在 18 歲之前從未嘗試過飲酒。
解釋:
Example 2 表達咗由我出生到 18 歲都從未嘗試過飲酒,而我而家亦過咗 18 歲。
大家要注意,後面嘅時間點唔一定要標明喺邊一個過去確切嘅時間!你只需要講明「喺過去」或者「喺下一個過去事件發生之前」就得。
 

2. To link two related past actions

「形容兩件喺過去發生嘅事件」
 (同 Past Continuous 唔同,呢兩件事情並非同時係過去某一個時間點一齊發生,需係有先後次序)
Example 1
I had planned to go cycling yesterday but I did not do so as it was raining.
我本來打算昨日去踏單車,不過最終因為下雨而沒有去。
Example 2
The thief had just left when the police arrived. 
警察到之前賊人只是剛剛走了。
解釋:
呢個情況之下,
- Past Perfect Tense 係指先發生嘅行為 (1st action)
(就好似 Example 1 入面,「計劃」係先發生嘅行為)
- Simple Past Tense 係指之後同樣喺過去發生嘅行為 (2nd action)

注:可能有同學仔喺呢一刻會好奇,以上呢個用法同 Simple Past Tense 嘅「用法3」 (Past actions / states happening one after another) 有咩唔同?
Simple Past: 通常係指第一個行為完咗之第二個行為即刻發生

Past Perfect:通常淨係表達一種先後次序,並唔一定要係緊接着嘅行為
 

3. An action that started in the past and was still ongoing at a later time in the past

「指一件事情從過去的某個時間點開始,並且持續進行到另外一個時間點」
Example 1
I hadn’t had a chance to swim for a year until this month.
我足足有一年的時間沒有機會去游泳,直至今個月才有機會去。
Example 2
He had not been willing to run with me until last week. 
他之前一直都不願意與我一起去跑步,直至上星期才願意。
解釋:
呢個應用場景其實同 Past Perfect Continuous 好相似,不過因為有啲動詞係沒辦法喺一個 Perfect Continuous 嘅層面使用(例如state verbs, linking verbs, speech act verbs 等),喺呢啲時候,用 Past Perfect Tense 就係一個比較好嘅選擇。
 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense 過去完成進行式 (with example sentences)

Form: had + been + v-ing
終於嚟到最後一個 Past Tense 啦!
啱啱學完 Past Continuous Tense 同 Past Perfect Tense 嘅你,又知唔知 Past Perfect Continuous Tense 點用呢?
credit: unsplash @xt1an
credit: unsplash @xt1an

1. Actions started before a time in the past which had finished before that time

「在過去某事件前,另一個更早的動作已經持續進行了一段時間,且該動作在那時仍持續進行中」
Example 1
Dad had been waiting in the rain so his shirt was wet when I met him.
爸爸一直在雨中等我,所以我遇見他時,他的襯衫都濕了。
解釋:
我同爸爸喺過去一個時間點係會遇見,而係我哋相遇之前,爸爸一直在雨中等我直到我哋見面。
喺呢句句子入面,「爸爸在雨中等我」喺我哋相遇之前一直進行中,所以會用到 Past Perfect Continuoius - “Dad had been waiting in the rain”,而之後見面就會用 Simple Past Tense - “when I met him” 去表達。

Past Perfect Tense VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Example 2A(Past Perfect ContinuousTense)
Dad had been waiting for a while before I finally arrived. 
爸爸在我到之前等了一會兒。
Example 2B(Past Perfect Tense)
Dad had waited for a while but I finally arrived.
爸爸等了一會兒,終於等到我來了。
解釋:
同 Example 2A 唔同,Example 2B 表達嘅係一種已完成嘅狀態(爸爸只需等一會兒,就沒有再等,與此同時 "我 "亦來了。)
相反,Example 2A 所用嘅 “Dad had been waiting for a while” 就強調咗「時間性」「持續性」。
(爸爸一直等緊,直到我到達。)
 

2. Repeated planned actions continuing in the past

「表達一件重覆係過去一直發生嘅事情」(呢件事情亦通常係早已計劃咗)
Example 1
I had been going jogging every day for a month before the lockdown.
我之前一直每天去跑步直至實施社區隔離。
Example 2
I had been visiting Disneyland once every year since I was young until last year. 
我從小便會每年去一次迪士尼樂園,直至上年才不再去。
 
Simple Past VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
同 Simple Past Tense 所用作形容過往恆常習慣不同,Past Perfect Continuous Tense 更重視「行為嘅持續性 (Continuity)」,而 Simple Past Tense 即係強調其「恆常性 (Regularity)」。
 
Past Continuous VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
有同學會將呢個用法同 Past Continuous 入面嘅 “regular unplanned actions in the past” 混淆。
要切記 Past Continuous Tense 入面所指嘅 regular actions in the past 係喺預料之外發生 (unplanned),而且通常呢種行為係唔受歡迎嘅 (unwanted)!
相反 Past Perfect Continuous 入面嘅行為係計劃好的。
 

3. Actions started in the past which were still ongoing up to a later time in the past

「指一件事情從過去的某個時間點開始,並且持續進行到另外一個時間點」
Example 1
He had been revising before Dad came back yesterday.
在爸爸昨天回來之前,他一直都在溫習。(並可能有繼續溫習)
Example 2
He had been revising for 6 hours before Dad came back yesterday.
在爸爸昨天回來之前,他溫習了六小時。(並可能有繼續溫習)
 
Past Perfect Tense VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense 嘅重點在於該行為已完成,就好似
He had revised for 6 hours before Dad came back yesterday. 
在爸爸昨天回來之前,他已經完成了六小時的溫習。

以上嘅句子入面用咗 “had revised” 即係指係爸爸回來之前,溫習呢項行為已經完成
相反,之前兩個例句中,溫習呢項行為係爸爸回來之前係一直進行當中嘅
 

English Grammar Past Tense Exercise (4 types of Past Tense)

credit: unsplash @lum3n
credit: unsplash @lum3n
睇完上面嘅解說,唔知你又係唔係真係明哂呢?不如試下做下以下幾條題目,去check 吓你係咪真係完全掌握到啦?
  1. She ______________________ (watch) this performance two years ago and still cannot forget it even today.

  2. I ______________________ (not go) to the party last night because I ______________________ (be) sick.

  3. By the time the delivery came, the problem __________________________ (already solve) itself.

  4. She still ____________________________ (not come) to her senses when the winner ____________________________ (announce).

  5. We ______________________ (dance) along to Tchaikovsky’s music when we suddenly ______________________ (hear) a terrible noise.

  6. “What ____________________ you ____________________ (do) at 10 p.m. last Saturday?” The police officer asks the suspect.

  7. When the young heiress took over the business at twenty-four, her cousin _________________________________________ (already run) it for ten years.

  8. Michael ______________________________ (stay) with his divorced mom since he ________________ (be) seven. Later, when he ________________________ (turn) eleven, he ____________________________ (move) to his dad’s.

答案
  1. She watched this performance two years ago and still cannot forget it even today.

  2. I did not go to the party last night because I was sick.

  3. By the time the delivery came, the problem had already solved itself.

  4. She still had not come to her senses when the winner was announced.

  5. We were dancing along to Tchaikovsky’s music when we suddenly heard a terrible noise.

  6. “What were you doing at 10 p.m. last Saturday?” The police officer asks the suspect.

  7. When the young heiress took over the business at twenty-four, her cousin had already been running it for ten years.

  8. Michael had been staying with his divorced mom since he was seven. Later, when he turned eleven, he moved to his dad’s.
 
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Mr. J English

Mr. J English

Your DSE English Strategist