【英文 English Grammar】DSE 必備 Sentence Structure 英文句子結構

Mr. J English
Mr. J English 2021-8-2 2,270
DSE English Writing 必學 Sentence Structure,講解常見 sentence pattern (內附例子 example sentences) + common grammar mistakes!
充分掌握 English Sentence Structure 嘅運用絕對係 Grammar 入面最重要嘅一環之一,對 DSE English Writing 甚至 Listening Part B 非常有幫助!所以 AfterSchool 今次邀請咗 Mr. J English 同大家講下英文句子結構 Sentence Structure。想喺 DSE English Paper 2 同 Paper 3 攞多啲分?即刻睇落去啦!
 

基本知識:SVO Sentence Structure

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我哋一於由淺入深,講下英文句子最基本嘅 concept 先啦!
英文句子最常見嘅就係 SVO Sentence Structure
咩係 SVO?
S = Subject (主語) ; V = Verb (動詞);O = Object (賓語)
所以,SVO Sentence Structure 就即係 Subject + Verb + Object
e.g. I washed the dishes. 
分析:例句入面,I 係 Subject,washed 係 Verb,my clothes 係 Object。
 

英文三大句子結構

基本上,英文句子可以分為三大類。佢哋分別係 Simple Sentence (單句)、Compound Sentence (複合句)、Complex Sentence (複雜句)。

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1. Simple Sentence(單句)

我哋先講 Simple Sentence (單句)
結構:其實即係 SVO (Subject + Verb + Object)
 e.g. I love you. 
分析:例句入面,I 係 Subject、live 就係 Verb、you 係 object。

2. Compound Sentence (複合句)

第二,我哋講下 Compound Sentence (複合句)
結構:兩個或以上並且有關連 independent clause (獨立子句) 所組成,而呢兩個 Independent Clause 係由 Conjunction (連接詞) 連埋一齊。
e.g. I want to become a doctor in the future, so I study hard every day.
例子分析:
呢句句子入面有兩個 Independent Clause,分別係 “I want to become a doctor in the future” 同埋 “I study hard every day”,而呢兩個 Independent Clause 係用 Conjunction “so” 連埋一齊。

3. Complex Sentence (複雜句)

最後講埋 Complex Sentence (複雜句)
結構:一個 Independent Clause (獨立子句)  + 一個或以上嘅 Dependent Clause (從屬子句) 所組成。注意,雖然 Independent Clause 可以獨立以單句形式存在,但 Dependent Clause 就唔可以。
e.g. After lots of hard work, he still failed the audition.
例子分析:
呢句句子入面有一個 Dependent clause 同一個 Independent clause。
“After lots of hard work” 就係個 Dependent Clause,而 “he still failed the audition” 就係個 Independent clause 喇!
After lots of hard work (Dependent Clause) 並唔可以獨立以單句存在,但 he still failed the audition (Independent Clause) 就可以喇!
 

常見 Sentence Pattern

話咁快就講完咗 Sentence Structure,我哋而家就再簡單講下幾種常見嘅 Sentence Pattern啦!
佢哋分別係:
Conditional Sentence (條件句)
Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)
Cleft sentence (分裂句)

Conditional Sentence (條件句)

基本上,Conditional Sentence 以分為四種,亦即係 Type 0、Type 1、Type 2、Type 3。
Type 0
首先,第一種係 Type 0 Conditional Sentence。
用法:表達不可能改變的事實
結構: If-clause 係 Simple Present Tense ,Main-clause 係 Simple Present Tense
e.g. If I put an ice cream in the sun, it melts.

Type 1
第二種就係 Type 1 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達現時/將來有可能發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Simple Present Tense ,Main-clause 係 will + bare infinitive 。
e.g. If you do not work hard, you will fail the exams. 

Type 2
第三種就係 Type 2 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達現在或將來不大可能會發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Simple Past Tense,Main-clause係 would + bare infinitive 。
e.g. If I were you, I would take the opportunity. 

Type 3 
第四種就係 Type 3 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達 (過去) 不可能發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Past Perfect Tense,Main-clause 係 would + have + past participle 。 
e.g. If I had known you were coming, I would have baked a cake. 
 

Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)

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第二種常見嘅 Sentence Pattern 就係 Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)
最基本嘅 SVO Sentence Structure 會 Subject (主語) 喺 Verb (動詞) 後面,而 Inversion Sentence 就係將兩者次序對調,即係 Verb (動詞) 喺 Subject (主語) 後面。
以下呢啲情況就可以用 Inversion Sentence 喇!

第一:用於 Interrogative Clause (問句)
陳述句會係:You (Subject) will (Finite Verb) have lunch with me. 
如果轉做問句,就會變成:Will (Finite Verb) you (Subject) have lunch with me?  

第二: 用於 here 同 there 後面
e.g. Here comes (Verb) the train. (Subject)

第三:用於 Direct Speech (直接敘述語句)
e.g. “Please finish the assignment by tomorrow,” said (Reporting Verb) Mr Tsang (Subject).  

第四:用於 Negative adverbs 後面
Negative adverbs: little … / not… / no … / not … neither / not … nor / so …
e.g. Never should you lie to me. 

Cleft Sentence (分裂句)

所謂 Cleft 即係 divided。Cleft sentence 即係一項資訊被分成兩個子句嚟敍述,通常用於強調句子入面嘅其中一part。
It-cleft Sentence 同埋 Wh-cleft Sentence 係最常見嘅!

It-cleft Sentence
用法:It is / was … that
作用:強調 it is/was 後面嘅資訊嘅
e.g. It was the essay that I wrote last year. 

Wh-cleft Sentence
用法:What + Subject + Verb + is …
作用:強調 is 後面嘅資訊
e.g. What she needs most now is a good doctor. 
 
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Common Grammar Mistakes 常犯錯誤

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Run on Sentence (不間斷句)

所指嘅就係明明個句子應該要畫下句點,但你就夾硬繼續落去。
e.g. She is a fan of Terence Lam, she listens to all of his songs. 
例子分析:
由於 David majors in politics in university 本身已經係一個完整句子,所以需要用適當連接至或標點符號先再繼續下一句。
以下兩句就係正確做法喇!
She is a fan of Terence Lam. She listens to all of his songs.
She is a fan of Terence Lam, and she listens to all of his songs.
 

Sentence Fragment

Sentence Fragment 所指嘅就係個句子未有齊晒 SVO。
e.g. Got an essay to write tonight.
呢句句子缺乏咗Subject(主語),正確就要變成:
I (Subject) got an essay to write tonight.
 
講咗咁多,希望呢篇 blog 可以幫大家對 Sentence Pattern 了解多咗,喺運用上面都會覺得簡單咗、有信心咗啦!
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Mr. J English

Mr. J English

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