【Sentence Structure】DSE 必備英文句子結構

Mr. J English
Mr. J English 2021-8-2 21,019
DSE ENG 必學 Sentence Structure,講解常見英文句子結構, Sentence Pattern (內附例子 Example Sentences) & Common Grammar Mistakes!
充分掌握 English Sentence Structure 嘅運用絕對係 Grammar 入面最重要嘅一環之一,對 DSE English Paper 2 Writing 甚至 DSE English Paper 3 Listening Part B 非常有幫助!所以 AfterSchool 今次邀請咗 Mr. J English 同大家講下英文句子結構 Sentence Structure。想喺 DSE English Paper 2 同 Paper 3 攞多啲分?即刻睇落去啦!
 

基本知識:SVO Sentence Structure

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我哋一於由淺入深,講下英文句子最基本嘅 concept 先啦!
英文句子最常見嘅就係 SVO Sentence Structure
咩係 SVO?
S = Subject (主語) ; V = Verb (動詞);O = Object (賓語)
所以,SVO Sentence Structure 就即係 Subject + Verb + Object
e.g. I washed the dishes. 
分析:例句入面,I 係 Subject,washed 係 Verb,my clothes 係 Object。
 

三大英文句子結構

基本上,英文句子可以分為三大類。佢哋分別係 Simple Sentence (單句)、Compound Sentence (複合句)、Complex Sentence (複雜句)。

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1. Simple Sentence(單句)

我哋先講 Simple Sentence (單句)
結構:其實即係 SVO (Subject + Verb + Object)
 e.g. I love you. 
分析:例句入面,I 係 Subject、live 就係 Verb、you 係 object。

2. Compound Sentence (複合句)

第二,我哋講下 Compound Sentence (複合句)
結構:兩個或以上並且有關連 independent clause (獨立子句) 所組成,而呢兩個 Independent Clause 係由 Conjunction (連接詞) 連埋一齊。
e.g. I want to become a doctor in the future, so I study hard every day.
例子分析:
呢句句子入面有兩個 Independent Clause,分別係 “I want to become a doctor in the future” 同埋 “I study hard every day”,而呢兩個 Independent Clause 係用 Conjunction “so” 連埋一齊。

3. Complex Sentence (複雜句)

最後講埋 Complex Sentence (複雜句)
結構:一個 Independent Clause (獨立子句)  + 一個或以上嘅 Dependent Clause (從屬子句) 所組成。注意,雖然 Independent Clause 可以獨立以單句形式存在,但 Dependent Clause 就唔可以。
e.g. After lots of hard work, he still failed the audition.
例子分析:
呢句句子入面有一個 Dependent clause 同一個 Independent clause。
“After lots of hard work” 就係個 Dependent Clause,而 “he still failed the audition” 就係個 Independent clause 喇!
After lots of hard work (Dependent Clause) 並唔可以獨立以單句存在,但 he still failed the audition (Independent Clause) 就可以喇!
 

常見 Sentence Pattern

話咁快就講完咗 Sentence Structure,我哋而家就再簡單講下幾種常見嘅 Sentence Pattern啦!
佢哋分別係:
Conditional Sentence (條件句)
Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)
Cleft sentence (分裂句)

Conditional Sentence (條件句)

基本上,Conditional Sentence 以分為四種,亦即係 Type 0、Type 1、Type 2、Type 3。
Type 0
首先,第一種係 Type 0 Conditional Sentence。
用法:表達不可能改變的事實
結構: If-clause 係 Simple Present Tense ,Main-clause 係 Simple Present Tense
e.g. If I put an ice cream in the sun, it melts.

Type 1
第二種就係 Type 1 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達現時/將來有可能發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Simple Present Tense ,Main-clause 係 will + bare infinitive 。
e.g. If you do not work hard, you will fail the exams. 

Type 2
第三種就係 Type 2 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達現在或將來不大可能會發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Simple Past Tense,Main-clause係 would + bare infinitive 。
e.g. If I were you, I would take the opportunity. 

Type 3 
第四種就係 Type 3 Conditional Sentence 。
用法:表達 (過去) 不可能發生的事。
結構:If-clause 係 Past Perfect Tense,Main-clause 係 would + have + past participle 。 
e.g. If I had known you were coming, I would have baked a cake. 
 

Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)

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第二種常見嘅 Sentence Pattern 就係 Inversion Sentence (倒裝句)
最基本嘅 SVO Sentence Structure 會 Subject (主語) 喺 Verb (動詞) 後面,而 Inversion Sentence 就係將兩者次序對調,即係 Verb (動詞) 喺 Subject (主語) 後面。
以下呢啲情況就可以用 Inversion Sentence 喇!

第一:用於 Interrogative Clause (問句)
陳述句會係:You (Subject) will (Finite Verb) have lunch with me. 
如果轉做問句,就會變成:Will (Finite Verb) you (Subject) have lunch with me?  

第二: 用於 here 同 there 後面
e.g. Here comes (Verb) the train. (Subject)

第三:用於 Direct Speech (直接敘述語句)
e.g. “Please finish the assignment by tomorrow,” said (Reporting Verb) Mr Tsang (Subject).  

第四:用於 Negative adverbs 後面
Negative adverbs: little … / not… / no … / not … neither / not … nor / so …
e.g. Never should you lie to me. 

Cleft Sentence (分裂句)

所謂 Cleft 即係 divided。Cleft sentence 即係一項資訊被分成兩個子句嚟敍述,通常用於強調句子入面嘅其中一part。
It-cleft Sentence 同埋 Wh-cleft Sentence 係最常見嘅!

It-cleft Sentence
用法:It is / was … that
作用:強調 it is/was 後面嘅資訊嘅
e.g. It was the essay that I wrote last year. 

Wh-cleft Sentence
用法:What + Subject + Verb + is …
作用:強調 is 後面嘅資訊
e.g. What she needs most now is a good doctor. 
DSE 英文 Grammar 系列
Past TenseSentence StructureConnectives
依家我同 SCMP 合作,推出 75分鐘 Grammar 精讀班,課程由4位英文奪 5** 最強團隊聯手打造,教你Grammar 極速提昇嘅秘技同無腦語法記憶方法,唔使用再死背爛背! 係咪好吸引呢~ 想迅速掌握 Grammar 技巧嘅你,一定唔可以錯過!
 

Common Grammar Mistakes 常犯錯誤

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Run on Sentence (不間斷句)

所指嘅就係明明個句子應該要畫下句點,但你就夾硬繼續落去。
e.g. She is a fan of Terence Lam, she listens to all of his songs. 
例子分析:
由於 David majors in politics in university 本身已經係一個完整句子,所以需要用適當連接至或標點符號先再繼續下一句。
以下兩句就係正確做法喇!
She is a fan of Terence Lam. She listens to all of his songs.
She is a fan of Terence Lam, and she listens to all of his songs.
 

Sentence Fragment

Sentence Fragment 所指嘅就係個句子未有齊晒 SVO。
e.g. Got an essay to write tonight.
呢句句子缺乏咗Subject(主語),正確就要變成:
I (Subject) got an essay to write tonight.
 
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Mr. J English

Mr. J English

👔 DSE 輕鬆取 5**•英文考試技巧專家🌟 七年補習經驗.超過 3,000 名學生成績顯著提升🗣 資深辯論教練•最強 Oral 及論證技巧📚 6 科 38 分.香港大學 BBA Law 雙學位Mr. J 於 DSE 勇奪英文 5**,考入香港大學工商管理學學士及法學士HKU BBA Law 雙學位。憑著七年 DSE 英文教學經驗,打造出一套技巧實戰兼備 ; 幫助同學穩奪 lv 5+ 嘅教學方法 ! 成功逆轉超過 3,000 多名學生英文成續,獲無數同學家長一致好評 !